Friday, January 13, 2017

More than 80 LOD-enhanced ebooks published to the ANS Digital Library

The American Numismatic Society has nearly completed its Mellon Foundation-funded Humanities Open Book program. Eighty-two of 86 books have been enhanced by a Whitney Christopher, a TEI specialist from the King's College London DH program to link to people and places defined on, Pleiades (either directly linked or by means of Nomisma's internal concordance system), VIAF, Wikidata, and the ANS's own archival authority control system. The final four books will go online soon. They are all available in the ANS Digital Library.

The number of people and places mentioned in these texts is a staggering figure, and it should be noted that we have focused on linking those entities that are most relevant to the texts, but we will continue to refine the linking over time, especially when it comes to Nomisma concepts and bibliographic references to Worldcat Works (links to which have not yet been incorporated). As Nomisma expands further into the Greek world and other domains of numismatics (after the ancient period), we will return to these ebooks to insert or replace links to Nomisma mints, people, and political entities.

Beyond relevant people and places, we have inserted hundreds of links to IGCH records (about 170 different coin hoards are cited in 400 locations in a handful of books), to the ANS collection, and to coin types defined in OCRE or CRRO. So far, more than 100 coins in the ANS and 6 in the Smithsonian American Art Museum have been identified by their accession numbers, although one of the four remaining books to be published will soon include nearly 70 more links to ANS coins. There are many more coins referenced in these books that may now belong to the ANS, but were not accessioned at the date of publication. A curator with more specific knowledge will need to identify these in the future.

One of the most often cited hoard is the Demanhur Hoard (IGCH 1664), which is mentioned in four books and on various pages of two of Edward Newell's notebooks. By linking archival authorities mentioned in these texts, we have greatly enhanced access to the works by and about Edward Newell and other prominent numismatic figures associated with the Society. A user of the ANS's authority portal (built on EAC-CPF) will have access to books written by Newell in our digital library, as well as his archival materials. Furthermore, mentions of Newell from the books written by other scholars will appear under annotations. In his case, he is mentioned in 18 other books, sometimes in multiple sections.

Like Mantis, the OCRE and CRRO config files have been updated to link to our archival SPARQL endpoint, and therefore annotations about specific types are accessible directly through types defined in these system. Nearly 50 types in OCRE are linked from Roman Medallions, and a researcher can drill down into a specific section of the book from RIC 5 Gallienus and Salonina 1.

Finally, through the links to Pleiades, each section in each book that mentions an ancient place will be accessible in Pelagios.

Monday, September 26, 2016

Publication of the NEH/Mellon Open Humanities ebooks

About a month ago, we pushed about 85 TEI files into production in the ANS Digital Library. These ebooks were transcribed from HathiTrust scans as part of the NEH/Mellon Open Humanities Book Program. Not all of the books have value-added tagging yet. We hired a TEI specialist several weeks ago to begin the process of linking coins, coin types, hoards, people, places, and other subject matter in the body of these books to URIs in our or other information systems.

So far three of these books are complete:
  1. The Fifth Dura Hoard
  2. The Earliest Coins of Norway
  3. The Medallic Work of A.A. Weinman
Like the first book published into our Digital Library (Noe's Coin Hoards), the TEI links have been transformed into RDF conforming to Open Annotation, and these annotations are available in our other systems. For example, J. Sanford Saltus is referenced in The Medallic Work of A.A. Weinman, and so this annotation is available in the biography of Saltus in our EAC-CPF-driven authority system.

Most of the remaining books should have completed value-added TEI markup by the end of the year.

Thursday, March 17, 2016

First EBook published as part of Mellon/NEH Humanities Open Book Project

This is a follow-up to some major feature additions in MANTIS and IGCH detailed on the Numishare blog.

Today, we have published our first out of print, open access EBook for the NEH/Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program. It is Sydney Noe's 1920 Coin Hoards, the first issue of Numismatic Notes and Monographs. As we discussed in our grant application, we had a vendor transcribe these PDFs of images we received from HathiTrust into TEI. The TEI is run through a normalization XSLT stylesheet to correct some issues and pull bibliographic metadata from various sources, and then value-added tagging is applied to link to coins in our collection, hoards on, and entities in various geographic gazetteers or linked open data vocabulary systems.

As a result, we not only have a digital text that you can view in your browser as HTML5 or download as an EPUB 3.0.1, but a richly-tagged document that is exposed as RDF conforming to Open Annotation, which is then published into our archival SPARQL endpoint (and soon published into Pelagios). Many of the technical features of this publication process have already been discussed in this blog or in the post linked above.

This framework is part of a broader effort to integrate all of our Library, Archive, and Museum holdings into a central hub for numismatic research. It is therefore possible to gain further insight about the people, places, and things mentioned in these digital publications through Linked Open Data methodologies, but also to provide greater context to our data-driven numismatic research projects like IGCH, OCRE, etc.

Not only do we have a rich set of interlinked numismatic projects focusing on hoards, coins, and coin types, but now between these things and numismatic monographs and journals, archival research notebooks, finding aids, and authority records. Not only is it possible to read biographical information about Sydney Noe in Archer, you can view a map and timeline of his life, his social network graph, and gain access to a list of materials written by or about him.

This is the topic of my CAA presentation in Oslo in a few weeks.

Friday, March 11, 2016

Toward a more thoroughly integrated numismatic research system

I am making updates to our systems in preparation for the initial publication of NEH/Mellon EBooks. Part of the project is to thoroughly integrate these EBooks with our collection, archives, IGCH, and related project databases. I still have some work to do, but should have the first EBooks ready next week.
I updated the RDF model for our digitized Newell notebooks to conform to the model for our EBooks (Open Annotation) (there is one book published so far, the ANS Medals book by Miller). What this means is that mentions of IGCH, other scholars represented in our biographies site, and [soon] individual coins in Newell's notebooks will be made available through those other interfaces.


  • You can click on individual pages where Newell notes IGCH1399, and the page will load in Archer.
  • You can see a list of coin types from this hoard, and you can download the list of coin types or a full list of coins from the hoard (note that we aren't publishing our Greek coins that aren't connected to coin type URIs in's SPARQL endpoint).

On (an EAC-CPF authority record)

These already functioned --
  • See a list of archival materials about Edward Newell
  • (Fairly new) Several annotations in Miller's Medallic Arts of the ANS where he mentions Newell. You can click a link to go directly to a section.
  • A social network graph showing Newell and his relations (also driven by SPARQL, detailed here).

  • As before, you can get a list of archival materials about Noe
  • Newell mentions Noe on two pages of a notebook

Next steps:
  1. Update the code for Mantis to display annotations about specific coins referenced in Newell's notebooks or our EBooks.
  2. Update the Pelagios exports for the Digital Library and Archer to make our EBooks and archival materials more broadly accessible to the ancient world community
  3. Build widgets into our Digital Library to pull data from our other systems

This interlinking will be inherent to the publication mechanism for our EBooks. When we publish the first several next week, the annotations will be available in Mantis, the Archer Biographies, IGCH, etc.

I will be discussing these things and more in my presentation at CAA in Oslo at the end of the month.

Thursday, January 28, 2016

SPARQL-based social network graph in xEAC

I pushed into production a new SPARQL-based social network graph feature in xEAC. The most interesting places to start are and, but we have a lot of work to do to enhance the linkage between our authorities in order to make these visualizations more useful in the future.

Nearly a year ago, I began implementing a new EAC-CPF to RDF data model that could represent a graph of relationships in order to begin experimenting with rendering a social network graph in real time. After investigating the open source Javascript graph visualization tools, I choose vis.js, as it was powerful, easy to use, and could load JSON on the fly. I got a very basic graph working a year ago in time for Moving People, Linking Lives at the University of Virginia, but it wasn't interactive, in that you could not expand beyond the first level of nodes connected to the authority record you were immediately viewing.

After launching our first EBook a few weeks ago in ETDPub (which is integrated with our production installation of xEAC), I decided to revisit xEAC development of the social network graph interface.

The Model

The RDF model implements bits and pieces of various standard ontologies. People, corporate bodies, and families have separate URIs for their entity represented as a Concept and as a Thing. The Concept (skos:Concept) of a person can be linked to concepts of that person in other vocabulary systems, like the Getty ULAN, VIAF, Wikidata, or SNAC. This is also the data object where you may also include provenance about the creation and modification of the object record. For example, dcterms:created applied for a foaf:Person would imply that the person was born on the given date, but when used in a skos:Concept, this implies that the concept data object would have been created in the data system at the given date.

The Concept object is connected to the Thing object with foaf:focus.

The Thing object contains mainly biographical information, using the bio ontology. While much work remains to be done to link individuals to events, basic birth and death dates are represented, as well as a string of bio:relationships. Each bio:Relationship object contains a property defining the nature of the relationship and the target entity of the relationship. I will probably revisit the properties by which people are linked to organizations (using the org ontology more properly), but the model does function well enough to generate a graph of relationships.


Vis.js renders two JSON models, one for nodes and the other for edges, into a visual graph following HTML5 standards. Essentially, I had to build two web services in xEAC that would deliver these JSON models that could be read in real time via Ajax. The underlying model for these services is the SPARQL query, and the views are generated with two different XSLT stylesheets to generate the JSON that vis.js requires to render the graph. The query is this:

SELECT ?sourceName ?type ?target ?name ?class WHERE {
 <URI> foaf:name ?sourceName ;
       bio:relationship ?rel .
  ?rel xeac:relationshipType ?type ;
       bio:participant ?target .
  ?target foaf:name ?name ;
          a ?class

Essentially, we get all of the relationships connected to a particular entity (URI), the type of relationship (e.g., rel:spouseOf), and the target entity, whether another URI in the system or a blank node. The SPARQL response is processed and serialized into JSON. When clicking on connecting nodes in the graph visualization--if the target node is not a blank node RDF object (therefore, another authority in xEAC)--vis.js fires off another Ajax call to create new nodes and edges. Arrows in the graph visualization indicate the directionality of the relationship.

I should say that this is just the first phase of social network graph visualization in xEAC. While I have focused mainly on visualizing relationships on the level of the individual authority, my goal is to expand the application to implement a more sophisticated query interface that allows users to select arbitrary parameters to generate their own visualizations. For example, a user may want to view all persons grouped together by family or corporate body. Or group people by occupation or filter by date or place. All of these things are possible by reconceptualizing EAC-CPF into RDF graphs and developing the SPARQL queries that can be rendered into JSON for vis.js.

Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Survey to help usability testing

I have created a short questionnaire in a Google form to aid in usability testing for our TEI -> EPUB serialization. It is available at

You can download the EPUB file for the Miller Medallic Arts of the American Numismatic Society book here.

First EBook published to ANS Digital Library

This afternoon, we have published our first EBook to the ANS Digital Library in the ETDPub framework. This EBook, Medallic Art of the American Numismatic Society, 1865–2014 by Scott Miller, is encoded in TEI and has been issued with a Creative Commons BY-NC license. While the TEI file has not been fully linked into name and place authority files, I was able to use regex to link to medals in the American Numismatic Society collection and link one prominent scholar, Edward T. Newell, to our archival authority record. The TEI file will be fully linked up later, but the publication of this EBook can be seen as a completely functional demonstration of the technical application of linked open data principles to publishing these types of books for the larger NEH-Mellon Humanities Open Book project.

The TEI is indexed into Solr by ETDPub for full-text search, but this is only the beginning of this system's features. Using Orbeon's XPL pipelines, we are able to cobble together a series of XSLT transformations of the TEI file into XHTML and other XML files (NCX, OPF) required by the EPUB 3.0.1 specification. There is a link to the EPUB download on the page for the EBook, and the EPUB file is generated dynamically. I have tested on an ereader application on my desktop (Ubuntu) and a few on my Android phone. They mostly seem to work well, but the table of contents isn't consistently functional, but this seems to be more of an issue of the individual app not supporting EPUB 3.0.1 correctly rather than the EPUB file itself. I plan to put together a survey to assist in usability testing.

It is also important to note that the focus with EPUB serialization so far has been almost solely on functionality. The XSLT stylesheets are very basic and I have applied almost no CSS styling, but there is potential in enhancing the overall aesthetic of the document. That will come later as functional issues are ironed out. I am aware the tables do not seem to render properly.

The other major feature of ETDPub's TEI publishing is serialization into RDF (so far, XML, but JSON-LD and Turtle outputs are coming). This RDF is fairly rudimentary so far. The RDF contains a data object for the book as a whole (and associated metadata in dcterms, like creator and publisher) and for each child div, using dcterms:isPartOf to link the hierarchical structure of the book together. Furthermore, any link (ref element) within the lowest level relevant div and any name that has been linked via the @corresp attribute to an authoritative URI in the teiHeader will be rendered as an annotation following the Open Annotation model. ETPub is capable of executing CRUD operations with an SPARQL 1.1-compliant endpoint, and so the Digital Library application is posting into the triplestore that links our archival objects and authority records together. I have previously discussed linking xEAC and EADitor together via SPARQL, and now ETPub is capable of doing the same. The authority record for Newell now includes links to the sections in the ANS medals book in which he was mentioned, in addition to the research notebooks and photographs associated with Newell that are contained in the ANS archives. We are moving forward with linking our library, archives, and collection more closely together internally, as well as paving the way for scholars to gain further context with data sources outside the ANS.